Design in France, Italy and Germany was dominated by the output of manufacturers working in a variety of historicist styles. Strong influences remained the French styles of the ancien régime, as well as the Renaissance, the Far East and Ancient Rome.
Designers such as Sévin for Barbedienne, Reiber for Christofle and Ranvier for Deck created works with an originality that distinguishes them from mere pastiches of the past. Notable manufacturers also include Diehl and Lièvre.
From Italy, of particular appeal is the intricate carving executed in Tuscany by individuals such as Frullini, Giusti and Barbetti.
And in Germany, after the Classicism of Schinkel, it is the Gothic Revival advocated by designers including Ungewitter which is, perhaps, of greatest interest.